Vesicoureteric Reflux (VUR) in Children: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options

Vesicoureteric Reflux (VUR) in Children in Pune Dr. Vishesh Dikshit


Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) is a common urological condition that affects children, and it requires specialized care from a pediatric Urologist. In this blog post, we will explore the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for VUR.
Understanding Vesicoureteric Reflux (VUR).

Vesicoureteric reflux occurs when urine flows backward from the bladder into the ureters and possibly up to the kidneys. This condition is more prevalent in infants and young children due to the underdevelopment of the urinary system. VUR can be classified into five grades, ranging from mild reflux to severe cases involving kidney damage. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial to prevent complications and preserve kidney function.

Causes of Vesicoureteric Reflux

The exact cause of VUR is not always clear, but it is often associated with a congenital abnormality in the valve-like mechanism that prevents urine from flowing backward. Some risk factors that may contribute to VUR include:

  • Genetic predisposition
  • Family history of VUR or urinary tract abnormalities
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
  • Bladder dysfunction or neurogenic bladder
  • Structural abnormalities in the urinary tract

Symptoms of Vesicoureteric Reflux

VUR may present with various symptoms, which can vary depending on the severity of the condition. Some common signs and symptoms of VUR include:

  • Frequent urinary tract infections
  • Bedwetting or urinary incontinence
  • Recurrent fevers without an obvious cause
  • Poor growth or failure to thrive
  • Abdominal or back pain
  • Blood in the urine (hematuria)

Diagnosis and Treatment Options

If VUR is suspected the following diagnostic tests may be needed:

  • Urinalysis: This helps detect the presence of bacteria or blood in the urine.
  • Voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG): This X-ray procedure evaluates the flow of urine and identifies reflux.
  • Renal ultrasound: This imaging technique provides detailed images of the kidneys and urinary tract.

Treatment Approach for VUR

Once diagnosed, the treatment approach for VUR depends on the severity of the condition Some options include:

  • Antibiotic prophylaxis: Low-dose antibiotics may be prescribed to prevent urinary tract infections and further complications.
  • Surgical intervention: In more severe cases, surgical correction may be necessary to repair the abnormality and prevent reflux.
  • Endoscopic injection: In less severe cases, a minimally invasive procedure known as endoscopic injection can be performed to improve the valve mechanism and reduce reflux


In conclusion, Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) is a common urological condition in children that requires specialized care. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to prevent complications and preserve kidney function. While the exact cause of VUR is not always clear, factors such as genetic predisposition, family history, UTIs, and structural abnormalities can contribute. Symptoms of VUR vary but may include urinary tract infections, bedwetting, recurrent fevers, and abdominal or back pain. Diagnostic tests such as urinalysis, VCUG, and renal ultrasound aid in diagnosis. Treatment options range from antibiotic prophylaxis to surgical intervention or endoscopic injection, depending on the severity of the condition. Overall, a comprehensive approach to VUR management is crucial to optimize outcomes for affected children under the care of a skilled pediatric Urologist like Dr. Vishesh Dikshit.